Philosophy Quotes

 A man's delight in looking forward to and hoping for some particular satisfaction is a part of the pleasure flowing out of it, enjoyed in advance. But this is afterward deducted, for the more we look forward to anything the less we enjoy it when it comes. 
Author: Arthur Schopenhauer
Nationality: German
b. 22 February 1788  - d. 21 September 1860
  
 A strict belief in fate is the worst of slavery, imposing upon our necks an everlasting lord and tyrant, whom we are to stand in awe of night and day. 
Author: Epicurus
Nationality: Greek
b. December 341  - d.  December 270
  
 A word too much always defeats its purpose. 
Author: Arthur Schopenhauer
Nationality: German
b. 22 February 1788  - d. 21 September 1860
  
 Ah, don't talk to me about Freud. Freud lived in a tight little circle in Vienna, and inside that tight little circle was another tight little circle, and inside that tight little circle was still another tight little circle. What applies to that poor man, Freud, does not necessarily apply to me. 
Author: Eric Hoffer
Nationality: American
b. 25 July 1902  - d. 21 May 1983
  
 All men's souls are immortal, But the souls of the righteous are immortal and divine. 
Author: Socrates
Nationality: Greek
b. December 469  - d.  December 399
  
 All truth passes through three stages. First, it is ridiculed. Second, it is violently opposed. Third, it is accepted as being self-evident. 
Author: Arthur Schopenhauer
Nationality: German
b. 22 February 1788  - d. 21 September 1860
  
 Americans are benevolently ignorant about Canada, while Canadians are malevolently well informed about the United States. 
Author: J. Bartlett Brebner
Nationality: German   
 As to marriage or celibacy, let a man take which course he will, he will be sure to repent. 
Author: Socrates
Nationality: Greek
b. December 469  - d.  December 399
  
 Associate with the noblest people you can find; read the best books; live with the mighty. But learn to be happy alone. Rely upon your own energies, and so do not wait for, or depend on other people. 
Author: Thomas Davidson
Nationality: American
b. 25 October 1840  - d. 14 September 1900
  
 Bad men live that they may eat and drink, whereas good men eat and drink that they may live. 
Author: Socrates
Nationality: Greek
b. December 469  - d.  December 399
  
 Be of good hope in the face of death. Believe in this one truth for certain, that no evil can befall a good man either in life or death, and that his fate is not a matter of indifference to the gods. 
Author: Socrates
Nationality: Greek
b. December 469  - d.  December 399
  
 Be slow to fall into friendship; but when thou art in, continue firm and constant. 
Author: Socrates
Nationality: Greek
b. December 469  - d.  December 399
  
 Beauty is a short-lived tyranny. 
Author: Socrates
Nationality: Greek
b. December 469  - d.  December 399
  
 Buying books would be a good thing if one could also buy the time to read them in: but as a rule the purchase of books is mistaken for the appropriation of their contents. 
Author: Arthur Schopenhauer
Nationality: German
b. 22 February 1788  - d. 21 September 1860
  
 By all means marry. If you get a good wife you will become happy, and if you get a bad one you will become a philosopher. 
Author: Socrates
Nationality: Greek
b. December 469  - d.  December 399
  
 By annihilating the desires, you annihilate the mind. Every man without passions has within him no principle of action, nor motive to act. 
Author: Claude Adrien Helvétius
Nationality: French
b. 26 January 1715  - d. 26 December 1771
  
 Cash up front, and we have a deal. 
Author: Proverb
Nationality: French   
 Contentment is natural wealth, luxury is artificial poverty. 
Author: Socrates
Nationality: Greek
b. December 469  - d.  December 399
  
 Crito, I owe a cock to Asclepius; will you remember to pay the debt? 
Author: Socrates
Nationality: Greek
b. December 469  - d.  December 399
  
 Cut your losses and let your profits run. 
Author: Proverb
Nationality: Greek   
 Death does not concern us, because as long as we exist, death is not here. And when it does come, we no longer exist. 
Author: Epicurus
Nationality: Greek
b. December 341  - d.  December 270
  
 Death may be the greatest of all human blessings. 
Author: Socrates
Nationality: Greek
b. December 469  - d.  December 399
  
 Democracy is not about counting citizens, But having citizens that count, as citizens. 
Author: Greg Olson-Hyde
Nationality: Australian
b. 29 June 1949
  
 Do not do to others what angers you if done to you by others. 
Author: Isocrates
Nationality: Greek
b. December 436  - d.  December 338
  
 Do not take thought for your persons or your properties, but first and chiefly to care about the greatest improvement of the soul. I tell you that the virtue is not given by money, but that from virtue come money and every other good of man, public as well as private. The difficulty, my friends, is not in avoiding death, but in avoiding unrighteousness; for that runs faster than death. 
Author: Socrates
Nationality: Greek
b. December 469  - d.  December 399
  
 Enlightenment is man's emergence from his self-imposed immaturity. Immaturity is the inability to use one's understanding without guidance from another. This immaturity is self-imposed when its cause lies not in the lack of understanding, but in the lack of resolve and courage to use it without guidance from another. Have courage to use your own understanding! 
Author: Immanuel Kant
Nationality: German
b. 22 April 1724  - d. 12 February 1804
  
 Envy is the ulcer of the soul. 
Author: Socrates
Nationality: Greek
b. December 469  - d.  December 399
  
 Every achiever I have ever met says, My life turned around when I began to believe in me. 
Author: Robert Harold Schuller
Nationality: American
b. 16 September 1926
  
 Every nation ridicules other nations and all are right. 
Author: Arthur Schopenhauer
Nationality: German
b. 22 February 1788  - d. 21 September 1860
  
 If you haven't attained true clear vision, this causes you to lapse into extremes, so that you lose contact with reality. 
Author: Yuanwu Keqin
Nationality: German
b. December 1063  - d.  December 1135
  
 Faith comprises both itself and doubt of itself. 
Author: Paul Johannes Tillich
Nationality: American
b. 20 August 1886  - d. 22 October 1965
  
 False words are not only evil in themselves, but they infect the soul with evil. 
Author: Socrates
Nationality: Greek
b. December 469  - d.  December 399
  
 Fame is the perfume of heroic deeds. 
Author: Socrates
Nationality: Greek
b. December 469  - d.  December 399
  
 Fear comes from uncertainty. When we are absolutely certain, whether of our worth or worthlessness, we are Almost impervious to fear. Thus a feeling of utter unworthiness can be a source of courage. 
Author: Eric Hoffer
Nationality: American
b. 25 July 1902  - d. 21 May 1983
  
 Fear less, hope more; eat less, chew more; whine less, breathe more; talk less, say more; hate less, love more; and all good things are yours. 
Author: Swedish Proverb
Nationality: American   
 Freedom is alone the unoriginated birthright of man; it belongs to him by force of his humanity, and is in dependence on the will and creation of every other, in so far as this consists with every other person's freedom. 
Author: Immanuel Kant
Nationality: German
b. 22 April 1724  - d. 12 February 1804
  
 Get not your friends by bare compliments, but by giving them sensible tokens of your love. 
Author: Socrates
Nationality: Greek
b. December 469  - d.  December 399
  
 Give me matter, and I will construct a world out of it! 
Author: Immanuel Kant
Nationality: German
b. 22 April 1724  - d. 12 February 1804
  
 Happiness is unrepented pleasure. 
Author: Socrates
Nationality: Greek
b. December 469  - d.  December 399
  
 Have patience awhile; slanders are not long-lived. Truth is the child of time; ere long she shall appear to vindicate thee. 
Author: Immanuel Kant
Nationality: German
b. 22 April 1724  - d. 12 February 1804
  
 Having a problem and not admitting it, is a problem. Having a problem and admitting it, is half way to a solution! 
Author: Greg Olson-Hyde
Nationality: Australian
b. 29 June 1949
  
 He is not idle who does nothing, but he is idle who might be better employed. 
Author: Socrates
Nationality: Greek
b. December 469  - d.  December 399
  
 He is richest who is content with the least, for content is the wealth of nature. 
Author: Socrates
Nationality: Greek
b. December 469  - d.  December 399
  
 How frighteningly few are the persons whose death would spoil our appetite and make the world seem empty. 
Author: Eric Hoffer
Nationality: American
b. 25 July 1902  - d. 21 May 1983
  
 How much easier is self-sacrifice than self-realization! 
Author: Eric Hoffer
Nationality: American
b. 25 July 1902  - d. 21 May 1983
  
 I am never to act without willing that the maxim by which I act should become a universal law. 
Author: Immanuel Kant
Nationality: German
b. 22 April 1724  - d. 12 February 1804
  
 I decided that it was not wisdom that enabled poets to write their poetry, but a kind of instinct or inspiration, such as you find in seers and prophets who deliver all their sublime messages without knowing in the least what they mean. 
Author: Socrates
Nationality: Greek
b. December 469  - d.  December 399
  
 I wanted a perfect ending. Now I've learned, the hard way, that some poems don't rhyme, and some stories don't have a clear beginning, middle, and end. 
Author: Gilda Radner
Nationality: American
b. 28 June 1946  - d. 20 May 1989
  
 I was really too honest a man to be a politician and live. 
Author: Socrates
Nationality: Greek
b. December 469  - d.  December 399
  
 If all our misfortunes were laid in one common heap whence everyone must take an equal portion, most people would be contented to take their own and depart. 
Author: Socrates
Nationality: Greek
b. December 469  - d.  December 399
  
 If I wished to punish a province, I would have it governed by philosophers. 
Author: King Frederick the Great - Frederick II
Nationality: Prussian
b. 24 January 1712  - d. 17 August 1786
  
 If man makes himself a worm he must not complain when he is trodden on. 
Author: Immanuel Kant
Nationality: German
b. 22 April 1724  - d. 12 February 1804
  
 If the gods listened to the prayers of men, all humankind would quickly perish since they constantly pray for many evils to befall one another. 
Author: Epicurus
Nationality: Greek
b. December 341  - d.  December 270
  
 If thou continuest to take delight in idle argumentation, thou mayest be qualified to combat with the sophists, but will never know how to live with men. 
Author: Socrates
Nationality: Greek
b. December 469  - d.  December 399
  
 If we continue to ride rough shod over our past, we may turn around one day to find we are no longer casting a shadow. 
Author: Greg Olson-Hyde
Nationality: Australian
b. 29 June 1949
  
 In automobile terms, the child supplies the power but the parents have to do the steering. 
Author: Dr. Benjamin McLane Spock
Nationality: American
b. 02 May 1903  - d. 15 March 1998
  
 Intimidation is a sure sign of incompetence. 
Author: Greg Olson-Hyde
Nationality: Australian
b. 29 June 1949
  
 It is a great piece of folly to sacrifice the inner for the outer man. 
Author: Arthur Schopenhauer
Nationality: German
b. 22 February 1788  - d. 21 September 1860
  
 It is better for you to be free of fear lying upon a pallet, than to have a golden couch and a rich table and be full of trouble. 
Author: Epicurus
Nationality: Greek
b. December 341  - d.  December 270
  
 It is impossible to live pleasurably without living prudently, honorably, and justly; or to live prudently, honorably, and justly, without living pleasurably. 
Author: Epicurus
Nationality: Greek
b. December 341  - d.  December 270
  
 It is not so much our friends' help that helps As the confidence of their help. 
Author: Epicurus
Nationality: Greek
b. December 341  - d.  December 270
  
 It is with trifles, and when he is off guard, that a man Best reveals his character. 
Author: Arthur Schopenhauer
Nationality: German
b. 22 February 1788  - d. 21 September 1860
  
 Language has created the word loneliness to express the pain of being alone, and the word solitude to express the glory of being alone. 
Author: Paul Johannes Tillich
Nationality: American
b. 20 August 1886  - d. 22 October 1965
  
 Let criticism motivate you. 
Author: Jan Ruhe
Nationality: American   
 Let him that would move the world, first move himself. 
Author: Socrates
Nationality: Greek
b. December 469  - d.  December 399
  
 Life is a language in which certain truths are conveyed to us; if we could learn them in some other way, we should not live. 
Author: Arthur Schopenhauer
Nationality: German
b. 22 February 1788  - d. 21 September 1860
  
 Like an image in a dream the world is troubled by love, hatred, and other poisons. So long as the dream lasts, the image appears to be real; but on awaking it vanishes. 
Author: Adi Shankara
Nationality: Indian   
 Love-making is radical, while marriage is conservative. 
Author: Eric Hoffer
Nationality: American
b. 25 July 1902  - d. 21 May 1983
  
 Man must be disciplined, for he is by nature raw and wild. 
Author: Immanuel Kant
Nationality: German
b. 22 April 1724  - d. 12 February 1804
  
 Man must choose whether to be rich in things or in the freedom to use them. 
Author: Ivan Illich
Nationality: American
b. 04 September 1926  - d. 02 December 2002
  
 Man, know thyself. 
Author: Socrates
Nationality: Greek
b. December 469  - d.  December 399
  
 Man's ultimate concern must be expressed symbolically, Because symbolic language alone is able to express the ultimate. 
Author: Paul Johannes Tillich
Nationality: American
b. 20 August 1886  - d. 22 October 1965
  
 Metaphysics is a dark ocean without shores or lighthouse, strewn with many a philosophic wreck. 
Author: Immanuel Kant
Nationality: German
b. 22 April 1724  - d. 12 February 1804
  
 Misery loves company, but company does not reciprocate. 
Author: Addison Mizner
Nationality: American
b. 12 December 1872  - d. 05 February 1933
  
 Money is human happiness in the abstract: he, then, who is no longer capable of enjoying human happiness in the concrete devotes his heart entirely to money. 
Author: Arthur Schopenhauer
Nationality: German
b. 22 February 1788  - d. 21 September 1860
  
 My advice to you is get married: if you find a good wife you'll be happy; if not, you'll become a philosopher. 
Author: Socrates
Nationality: Greek
b. December 469  - d.  December 399
  
 Necessity is the constant scourge of the lower classes, ennui of the higher ones. 
Author: Arthur Schopenhauer
Nationality: German
b. 22 February 1788  - d. 21 September 1860
  
 Not life, but good life, is to be chiefly valued. 
Author: Socrates
Nationality: Greek
b. December 469  - d.  December 399
  
 Obstinacy is the result of the will forcing itself into the place of the intellect. 
Author: Arthur Schopenhauer
Nationality: German
b. 22 February 1788  - d. 21 September 1860
  
 Our prayers should be for blessings in general, for God knows best what is good for us. 
Author: Socrates
Nationality: Greek
b. December 469  - d.  December 399
  
 Perhaps a modern society can remain stable only by eliminating adolescence, by giving its young, from the age of ten, the skills, responsibilities, and rewards of grownups, and opportunites for action in all spheres of life. Adolescence should be a time of useful action, while book learning and scholarship should be a preoccupation of adults. 
Author: Eric Hoffer
Nationality: American
b. 25 July 1902  - d. 21 May 1983
  
 Personal courage is really a very subordinate virtue... in which we are surpassed by the lower animals. 
Author: Arthur Schopenhauer
Nationality: German
b. 22 February 1788  - d. 21 September 1860
  
 Philosophy is the replacement of category-habits by category-disciplines. 
Author: Gilbert Ryle
Nationality: British
b. 19 August 1900  - d. 06 October 1976
  
 Pleasure is the absence of pain in the body and of trouble in the soul. 
Author: Epicurus
Nationality: Greek
b. December 341  - d.  December 270
  
 Politeness is to human nature what warmth is to wax.  
Author: Arthur Schopenhauer
Nationality: German
b. 22 February 1788  - d. 21 September 1860
  
 Power corrupts the few, while weakness corrupts the many. 
Author: Eric Hoffer
Nationality: American
b. 25 July 1902  - d. 21 May 1983
  
 Putting off an easy thing makes it hard, and putting off a hard one makes it impossible. 
Author: George H. Lonmer
Nationality: American   
 Regard your good name as the richest jewel you can possibly be possessed of - for credit is like fire; when once you have kindled it you may easily preserve it, but if you once extinguish it, you will find it an arduous task to rekindle it again. The way to gain a good reputation is to endeavor to be what you desire to appear. 
Author: Socrates
Nationality: Greek
b. December 469  - d.  December 399
  
 Remember that there is nothing stable in human affairs; therefore avoid undue elation in prosperity, or undue depression in adversity. 
Author: Socrates
Nationality: Greek
b. December 469  - d.  December 399
  
 Retribution often means that we eventually do to ourselves what we have done unto others. 
Author: Eric Hoffer
Nationality: American
b. 25 July 1902  - d. 21 May 1983
  
 See one promontory, one mountain, one sea, one river, and see all. 
Author: Socrates
Nationality: Greek
b. December 469  - d.  December 399
  
 Seek not the favor of the multitude; it is seldom got by honest and lawful means. But seek the testimony of the few; and number not voices, but weigh them. 
Author: Immanuel Kant
Nationality: German
b. 22 April 1724  - d. 12 February 1804
  
 Sleep is the interest we have to pay on the capital which is called in at death; and the higher the rate of interest and the more regularly it is paid, the further the date of redemption is postponed. 
Author: Arthur Schopenhauer
Nationality: German
b. 22 February 1788  - d. 21 September 1860
  
 Some people gain comfort believing there is a God, some by believing that his son died for us while others gain comfort from sitting on hard wooden pews in a very large building. 
Author: Greg Olson-Hyde
Nationality: Australian
b. 29 June 1949
  
 Speak to me not of policies, They are but sand in the wind, Speak to me of philosophies, They are the rocks of solid wisdom. 
Author: Greg Olson-Hyde
Nationality: Australian
b. 29 June 1949
  
 The amount of noise an organism generates or can tolerate is inversely proportional to its intelligence. 
Author: Arthur Schopenhauer
Nationality: German
b. 22 February 1788  - d. 21 September 1860
  
 The Ancient oracle said I was the wisest of all the Greeks. It is because I alone, of all the Greeks, know that I know nothing. 
Author: Socrates
Nationality: Greek
b. December 469  - d.  December 399
  
 The awareness of the ambiguity of one's highest achievements (as well as one's deepest failures) is a definite symptom of maturity. 
Author: Paul Johannes Tillich
Nationality: American
b. 20 August 1886  - d. 22 October 1965
  
 The end of life is to be like God, and the soul following God will be like him. 
Author: Socrates
Nationality: Greek
b. December 469  - d.  December 399
  
 The fewer our wants, the nearer we resemble the gods. 
Author: Socrates
Nationality: Greek
b. December 469  - d.  December 399
  
 The first duty of love is to listen. 
Author: Paul Johannes Tillich
Nationality: American
b. 20 August 1886  - d. 22 October 1965
  
 The first forty years of life give us the text; the next thirty supply the commentary on it. 
Author: Arthur Schopenhauer
Nationality: German
b. 22 February 1788  - d. 21 September 1860
  
 The fruit derived from labor is the sweetest of all pleasures. 
Author: Luc de Clapiers
Nationality: French
b. 06 August 1715  - d. 28 May 1747
  
 The greater difficulty, the more glory in surmounting it. Skilful pilots gain their reputation from storms and tempests. 
Author: Epicurus
Nationality: Greek
b. December 341  - d.  December 270
  
 The happiest miser on earth is the man who saves up every friend he can make. 
Author: Robert Emmet Sherwood
Nationality: American
b. 4 April 1896  - d. 14 November 1955
  
 The man who is not virtuous can never be happy. 
Author: Epicurus
Nationality: Greek
b. December 341  - d.  December 270
  
 The memory should be specially taxed in youth, since it is then that it is strongest and most tenacious. But in choosing the things that should be committed to memory the utmost care and forethought must be exercised; as lessons well learnt in youth are never forgotten. 
Author: Arthur Schopenhauer
Nationality: German
b. 22 February 1788  - d. 21 September 1860
  
 The nature of a society is largely determined by the direction in which talent and ambition flow-by the tilt of the social landscape. 
Author: Eric Hoffer
Nationality: American
b. 25 July 1902  - d. 21 May 1983
  
 The only good is knowledge and the only evil is ignorance. 
Author: Socrates
Nationality: Greek
b. December 469  - d.  December 399
  
 The only way to predict the future is to have power to shape the future. Those in possession of absolute power can not only prophesy and make their prophesies come true, but they can also lie and make their lies come true. 
Author: Eric Hoffer
Nationality: American
b. 25 July 1902  - d. 21 May 1983
  
 The opposite of the religious fanatic is not the fanatical atheist but the gentle cynic who cares not whether there is a god or not. 
Author: Eric Hoffer
Nationality: American
b. 25 July 1902  - d. 21 May 1983
  
 The perfect human being is all human beings put together, it is a collective, it is all of us together that make perfection. 
Author: Socrates
Nationality: Greek
b. December 469  - d.  December 399
  
 The shortest and surest way to live with honor in the world, is to be in reality what we would appear to be; all human virtues increase and strengthen themselves by the practice And experience of them. 
Author: Socrates
Nationality: Greek
b. December 469  - d.  December 399
  
 The thought of eternity consoles for the shortness of life. 
Author: Luc de Clapiers
Nationality: French
b. 06 August 1715  - d. 28 May 1747
  
 The unexamined life is not worth living for man. 
Author: Socrates
Nationality: Greek
b. December 469  - d.  December 399
  
 The way to gain a good reputation is to endeavor to be what you desire to appear. 
Author: Socrates
Nationality: Greek
b. December 469  - d.  December 399
  
 The will is the strong blind man who carries on his shoulders the lame man who can see. 
Author: Arthur Schopenhauer
Nationality: German
b. 22 February 1788  - d. 21 September 1860
  
 There are no great people, just ordinary people who set different goals. 
Author: Robert Harold Schuller
Nationality: American
b. 16 September 1926
  
 There is no absurdity so palpable but that it may be firmly planted in the human head if you only begin to inculcate it before the age of five, by constantly repeating it with an air of great solemnity. 
Author: Arthur Schopenhauer
Nationality: German
b. 22 February 1788  - d. 21 September 1860
  
 There is no human failure greater than to launch a profoundly important endeavour and then leave it half done. 
Author: Barbara Ward
Nationality: English
b. 23 May 1914  - d. 31 May 1981
  
 There is only one good, knowledge, and one evil, ignorance. 
Author: Socrates
Nationality: Greek
b. December 469  - d.  December 399
  
 Those in possession of absolute power can not only prophesy and make their prophecies come true, but they can also lie and make their lies come true. 
Author: Eric Hoffer
Nationality: American
b. 25 July 1902  - d. 21 May 1983
  
 Thou shouldst eat to live; not live to eat. 
Author: Socrates
Nationality: Greek
b. December 469  - d.  December 399
  
 To desire immortality is to desire the eternal perpetuation of a great mistake. 
Author: Arthur Schopenhauer
Nationality: German
b. 22 February 1788  - d. 21 September 1860
  
 To find yourself, think for yourself 
Author: Socrates
Nationality: Greek
b. December 469  - d.  December 399
  
 Tough times never last, but tough people do! 
Author: Robert Harold Schuller
Nationality: American
b. 16 September 1926
  
 True knowledge exists in knowing that you know nothing. And in knowing that you know nothing, that makes you the smartest of all. 
Author: Socrates
Nationality: Greek
b. December 469  - d.  December 399
  
 Trust yourself. You know more than you think you do. 
Author: Dr. Benjamin McLane Spock
Nationality: American
b. 02 May 1903  - d. 15 March 1998
  
 Truth that has merely been learned is like an artificial limb, a false tooth, a waxen nose; it adheres to us only because it is put on. But truth acquired by thought of our own is like a natural limb; it alone really belongs to us. 
Author: Arthur Schopenhauer
Nationality: German
b. 22 February 1788  - d. 21 September 1860
  
 Virtue consisteth of three parts, - temperance, fortitude, and justice. 
Author: Epicurus
Nationality: Greek
b. December 341  - d.  December 270
  
 Virtue is the beauty, and vice the deformity, of the soul. 
Author: Socrates
Nationality: Greek
b. December 469  - d.  December 399
  
 We are all visitors to this time, this place. We are just passing through. Our purpose here is to observe, to learn, to grow, to love... and then we return home. 
Author: Aboriginal Proverb
Nationality: Australian   
 We are more ready to try the untried when what we do is inconsequential. Hence the fact that many inventions had their birth as toys. 
Author: Eric Hoffer
Nationality: American
b. 25 July 1902  - d. 21 May 1983
  
 We are told that talent creates its own opportunities. But it sometimes seems that intense desire creates not only its own opportunities, but its own talents. 
Author: Eric Hoffer
Nationality: American
b. 25 July 1902  - d. 21 May 1983
  
 We must rediscover the distinction between hope and expectation. 
Author: Ivan Illich
Nationality: American
b. 04 September 1926  - d. 02 December 2002
  
 Wealth consists not in having great possessions, but in having few wants. 
Author: Epicurus
Nationality: Greek
b. December 341  - d.  December 270
  
 What you cannot enforce, do not command. 
Author: Socrates
Nationality: Greek
b. December 469  - d.  December 399
  
 When people are free to do as they please, they usually imitate each other. 
Author: Eric Hoffer
Nationality: American
b. 25 July 1902  - d. 21 May 1983
  
 When spider webs unite even a lion is stopped. 
Author: Zulu Proverb
Nationality: American   
 When the character of a man is not clear to you, look at his friends. 
Author: Japanese Proverb
Nationality: American   
 When thought is too weak to be simply expressed, it's clear proof that it should be rejected. 
Author: Luc de Clapiers
Nationality: French
b. 06 August 1715  - d. 28 May 1747
  
 Who does not thank for little will not thank for much. 
Author: Estonian Proverb
Nationality: French   
 Whoever does not regard what he has as most ample wealth, is unhappy, though he be master of the world. 
Author: Epicurus
Nationality: Greek
b. December 341  - d.  December 270
  
 Why should I fear death? If I am, death is not. If death is, I am not. Why should I fear that which cannot exist when I do? 
Author: Epicurus
Nationality: Greek
b. December 341  - d.  December 270
  
 With people of only moderate ability modesty is mere honesty; but with those who possess great talent it is hypocrisy. 
Author: Arthur Schopenhauer
Nationality: German
b. 22 February 1788  - d. 21 September 1860
  
 You can discover what your enemy fears most By observing the means he uses to frighten you. 
Author: Eric Hoffer
Nationality: American
b. 25 July 1902  - d. 21 May 1983
  
 If all who are engaged in the profession of education were willing to state the facts instead of making greater promises than they can possibly fulfill, they would not be in such bad repute with the lay-public.  
Author: Isocrates
Nationality: Greek
b. December 436  - d.  December 338
  
 Knowledge of the self is the mother of all knowledge. So it is incumbent on me to know my self, to know it completely, to know its minutiae, its characteristics, its subtleties, and its very atoms. 
Author: Khalil Gibran
Nationality: American
b. 6 January 1883  - d. 10 April 1931
  
 The man of the moment, is only a man for a moment. 
Author: Greg Olson-Hyde
Nationality: Australian
b. 29 June 1949
  
 Ignorance is Ego's intelligence. 
Author: Michael G. Olson
Nationality: Australian
b. 7 December 1956
  
 In your own words, Emperor with New Clothes, my childlike innocence will lead you to my door. 
Author: Michael G. Olson
Nationality: Australian
b. 7 December 1956
  
 It is the unconsious act that does the most damage. 
Author: Michael G. Olson
Nationality: Australian
b. 7 December 1956
  
 It is impossible to live a pleasant life without living wisely and well and justly - agreeing 'neither to harm nor be harmed. And it is impossible to live wisely and well and justly without living a pleasant life. 
Author: Epicurus
Nationality: Greek
b. December 341  - d.  December 270
  
 Crito, we owe a cock to Asclepius. Pay it and do not neglect it. 
Author: Socrates
Nationality: Greek
b. December 469  - d.  December 399
  
 All the preparations of reason, therefore, in what may be called pure philosophy, are in reality directed to those three problems only - God, the soul, and freedom. However, these three elements in themselves still hold independent, proportional, objective weight individually. Moreover, in a collective relational context; namely, to know what ought to be done: if the will is free, if there is a God, and if there is a future world. As this concerns our actions with reference to the highest aims of life, we see that the ultimate intention of nature in her wise provision was really, in the constitution of our reason, directed to moral interests only. 
Author: Immanuel Kant
Nationality: German
b. 22 April 1724  - d. 12 February 1804
  
 The wish to talk to God is absurd. We cannot talk to one we cannot comprehend - and we cannot comprehend God; we can only believe in Him. The uses of prayer are thus only subjective. 
Author: Immanuel Kant
Nationality: German
b. 22 April 1724  - d. 12 February 1804
  
 Religion is too important a matter to its devotees to be a subject of ridicule. If they indulge in absurdities, they are to be pitied rather than ridiculed. 
Author: Immanuel Kant
Nationality: German
b. 22 April 1724  - d. 12 February 1804
  
 Since the narrower or wider community of the peoples of the earth has developed so far that a violation of rights in one place is felt throughout the world, the idea of a cosmopolitan right is not fantastical, high-flown or exaggerated notion. It is a complement to the unwritten code of the civil and international law, necessary for the public rights of mankind in general and thus for the realization of perpetual peace. 
Author: Immanuel Kant
Nationality: German
b. 22 April 1724  - d. 12 February 1804
  
 The inscrutable wisdom through which we exist is not less worthy of veneration in respect to what it denies us than in respect to what it has granted. 
Author: Immanuel Kant
Nationality: German
b. 22 April 1724  - d. 12 February 1804
  
 Two things fill the mind with ever-increasing wonder and awe, the more often and the more intensely the mind of thought is drawn to them: the starry heavens above me and the moral law within me. 
Author: Immanuel Kant
Nationality: German
b. 22 April 1724  - d. 12 February 1804
  
 Morality is not properly the doctrine of how we may make ourselves happy, but how we may make ourselves worthy of happiness. 
Author: Immanuel Kant
Nationality: German
b. 22 April 1724  - d. 12 February 1804
  
 The universal and lasting establishment of peace constitutes not merely a part, but the whole final purpose and end of the science of right as viewed within the limits of reason. 
Author: Immanuel Kant
Nationality: German
b. 22 April 1724  - d. 12 February 1804
  
 Human freedom is realised in the adoption of humanity as an end in itself, for the one thing that no-one can be compelled to do by another is to adopt a particular end. 
Author: Immanuel Kant
Nationality: German
b. 22 April 1724  - d. 12 February 1804
  
 There is only a single categorical imperative and it is this: Act only on that maxim through which you can at the same time will that it should become a universal law. 
Author: Immanuel Kant
Nationality: German
b. 22 April 1724  - d. 12 February 1804
  
 Even if a civil society were to be dissolved by the consent of all its members, e.g., if a people inhabiting an island decided to separate and disperse throughout the world, the last murderer remaining in prison would first have to be executed, so that each has done to him what his deeds deserve and blood guilt does not cling to the people for not having insisted upon this punishment; for otherwise the people can be regarded as collaborators in his public violation of justice. 
Author: Immanuel Kant
Nationality: German
b. 22 April 1724  - d. 12 February 1804
  
 All our knowledge begins with the senses, proceeds then to the understanding, and ends with reason. There is nothing higher than reason. 
Author: Immanuel Kant
Nationality: German
b. 22 April 1724  - d. 12 February 1804
  
 All thought must, directly or indirectly, by way of certain characters, relate ultimately to intuitions, and therefore, with us, to sensibility, because in no other way can an object be given to us. 
Author: Immanuel Kant
Nationality: German
b. 22 April 1724  - d. 12 February 1804
  
 Always recognize that human individuals are ends, and do not use them as means to your end. 
Author: Immanuel Kant
Nationality: German
b. 22 April 1724  - d. 12 February 1804
  
 Do what is right, though the world may perish. 
Author: Immanuel Kant
Nationality: German
b. 22 April 1724  - d. 12 February 1804
  
 By a lie a man throws away and, as it were, annihilates his dignity as a man. 
Author: Immanuel Kant
Nationality: German
b. 22 April 1724  - d. 12 February 1804
  
 Even philosophers will praise war as ennobling mankind, forgetting the Greek who said: War is bad in that it begets more evil than it kills. 
Author: Immanuel Kant
Nationality: German
b. 22 April 1724  - d. 12 February 1804
  
 Experience without theory is blind, but theory without experience is mere intellectual play. 
Author: Immanuel Kant
Nationality: German
b. 22 April 1724  - d. 12 February 1804
  
 Fallacious and misleading arguments are most easily detected if set out in correct syllogistic form. 
Author: Immanuel Kant
Nationality: German
b. 22 April 1724  - d. 12 February 1804
  
 If we attend to the course of conversation in mixed companies consisting not merely of scholars and subtle reasoners but also of business people or women, we notice that besides storytelling and jesting they have another entertainment, namely, arguing. 
Author: Immanuel Kant
Nationality: German
b. 22 April 1724  - d. 12 February 1804
  
 Happiness is not an ideal of reason, but of imagination. 
Author: Immanuel Kant
Nationality: German
b. 22 April 1724  - d. 12 February 1804
  
 Immaturity is the incapacity to use one's intelligence without the guidance of another. 
Author: Immanuel Kant
Nationality: German
b. 22 April 1724  - d. 12 February 1804
  
 In law a man is guilty when he violates the rights of others. In ethics he is guilty if he only thinks of doing so. 
Author: Immanuel Kant
Nationality: German
b. 22 April 1724  - d. 12 February 1804
  
 Intuition and concepts constitute... the elements of all our knowledge, so that neither concepts without an intuition in some way corresponding to them, nor intuition without concepts, can yield knowledge. 
Author: Immanuel Kant
Nationality: German
b. 22 April 1724  - d. 12 February 1804
  
 It is not God's will merely that we should be happy, but that we should make ourselves happy. 
Author: Immanuel Kant
Nationality: German
b. 22 April 1724  - d. 12 February 1804
  
 It is not necessary that whilst I live I live happily; but it is necessary that so long as I live I should live honourably. 
Author: Immanuel Kant
Nationality: German
b. 22 April 1724  - d. 12 February 1804
  
 Nothing is divine but what is agreeable to reason. 
Author: Immanuel Kant
Nationality: German
b. 22 April 1724  - d. 12 February 1804
  
 Out of the crooked timber of humanity, no straight thing was ever made. 
Author: Immanuel Kant
Nationality: German
b. 22 April 1724  - d. 12 February 1804
  
 Reason can never prove the existence of God. 
Author: Immanuel Kant
Nationality: German
b. 22 April 1724  - d. 12 February 1804
  
 Reason does not work instinctively, but requires trial, practice, and instruction in order to gradually progress from one level of insight to another. 
Author: Immanuel Kant
Nationality: German
b. 22 April 1724  - d. 12 February 1804
  
 Reason must approach nature in order to be taught by it. It must not, however, do so in the character of a pupil who listens to everything that the teacher chooses to say, but of an appointed judge who compels the witness to answer questions which he has himself formulated. 
Author: Immanuel Kant
Nationality: German
b. 22 April 1724  - d. 12 February 1804
  
 The history of the human race, viewed as a whole may be regarded as the realization of a hidden plan of nature to bring about a political constitution, internally, and for this purpose, also externally perfect, as the only state in which all the capacities implanted by her in mankind can be fully developed. 
Author: Immanuel Kant
Nationality: German
b. 22 April 1724  - d. 12 February 1804
  
 Science is organized knowledge. Wisdom is organized life. 
Author: Immanuel Kant
Nationality: German
b. 22 April 1724  - d. 12 February 1804
  
 The only objects of practical reason are therefore those of good and evil. For by the former is meant an object necessarily desired according to a principle of reason; by the latter one necessarily shunned, also according to a principle of reason. 
Author: Immanuel Kant
Nationality: German
b. 22 April 1724  - d. 12 February 1804
  
 The eternal mystery of the world is its comprehensibility. 
Author: Immanuel Kant
Nationality: German
b. 22 April 1724  - d. 12 February 1804
  
 The possession of power unavoidably spoils the free use of reason. 
Author: Immanuel Kant
Nationality: German
b. 22 April 1724  - d. 12 February 1804
  
 My writing is done in railroad yards while waiting for a freight, in the fields while waiting for a truck, and at noon after lunch. Towns are too distracting. 
Author: Eric Hoffer
Nationality: American
b. 25 July 1902  - d. 21 May 1983
  
 Philosophy means nothing unless it is connected to birth, death, and the continuance of life. Anytime you are going to build a society that works, you have to begin from nature and the body. 
Author: Susan Griffin
Nationality: American
b. December 1943
  
 Neither one should hesitate about dedicating oneself to philosophy when young, nor should get tired of doing it when one's old, because no one is ever too young or too old to reach one's soul's healthy. 
Author: Epicurus
Nationality: Greek
b. December 341  - d.  December 270
  
 It is possible to provide security against other ills, but as far as death is concerned, we men live in a city without walls. 
Author: Epicurus
Nationality: Greek
b. December 341  - d.  December 270
  
 Those who tell the young man to live well and the old man to die well is nothing but a fool, not only for what life has in happiness to both young and old, but also for one must be careful in live honestly as well as die honestly. 
Author: Epicurus
Nationality: Greek
b. December 341  - d.  December 270
  
 Nothing is sufficient for the person who finds sufficiency too little. 
Author: Epicurus
Nationality: Greek
b. December 341  - d.  December 270
  
 I have written this letter to you on a happy day to me, which is also the last day of my life. For I have been attacked by a painful inability to urinate, and also dysentery, so violent that nothing can be added to the violence of my sufferings. But the cheerfulness of my mind, which comes from the recollection of all my philosophical contemplation, counterbalances all these afflictions. And I beg you to take care of the children of Metrodorus, in a manner worthy of the devotion shown by the young man to me, and to philosophy. 
Author: Epicurus
Nationality: Greek
b. December 341  - d.  December 270
  
 Dreams are like paper, they tear so easily. 
Author: Gilda Radner
Nationality: American
b. 28 June 1946  - d. 20 May 1989
  
 Life is about not knowing, having to change, taking the moment and making the best of it, without knowing what's going to happen next. 
Author: Gilda Radner
Nationality: American
b. 28 June 1946  - d. 20 May 1989
  
 Of hobbies there are many, many, kinds. For example, money-making. But money-making is not exactly a hobby, for it will scarcely carry a boy along in continuous joy, comfort and pleasure - to say nothing of a full-grown man. Money comes, not because it is ridden as a hobby, but because a real hobby is ridden so cleverly and carefully that it oozes out money on the side! 
Author: John Cotton Dana
Nationality: American
b. 19 August 1856  - d. 21 July 1929
  
 The death of dogma is the birth of reality. 
Author: Immanuel Kant
Nationality: German
b. 22 April 1724  - d. 12 February 1804
  
 Great thoughts come from the heart. 
Author: Luc de Clapiers
Nationality: French
b. 06 August 1715  - d. 28 May 1747
  
 Those who fear men like laws. 
Author: Luc de Clapiers
Nationality: French
b. 06 August 1715  - d. 28 May 1747
  
 In order to achieve great things, we must live as though we were never going to die. 
Author: Luc de Clapiers
Nationality: French
b. 06 August 1715  - d. 28 May 1747
  
 Hope deceives more men than cunning does. 
Author: Luc de Clapiers
Nationality: French
b. 06 August 1715  - d. 28 May 1747
  
 Most people grow old within a small circle of ideas, which they have not discovered for themselves. There are perhaps less wrong-minded people than thoughtless. 
Author: Luc de Clapiers
Nationality: French
b. 06 August 1715  - d. 28 May 1747
  
 Our failings sometimes bind us to one another as closely as could virtue itself. 
Author: Luc de Clapiers
Nationality: French
b. 06 August 1715  - d. 28 May 1747
  
 The art of pleasing is the art of deception. 
Author: Luc de Clapiers
Nationality: French
b. 06 August 1715  - d. 28 May 1747
  
 The things we know best are the things we haven't been taught. 
Author: Luc de Clapiers
Nationality: French
b. 06 August 1715  - d. 28 May 1747
  
 When a thought is too weak to be expressed simply, it should be rejected. 
Author: Luc de Clapiers
Nationality: French
b. 06 August 1715  - d. 28 May 1747
  
 Emotion has taught mankind to reason. 
Author: Luc de Clapiers
Nationality: French
b. 06 August 1715  - d. 28 May 1747
  
 Lazy people are always looking for something to do. 
Author: Luc de Clapiers
Nationality: French
b. 06 August 1715  - d. 28 May 1747
  
 He who knows how to suffer everything can risk everything. 
Author: Luc de Clapiers
Nationality: French
b. 06 August 1715  - d. 28 May 1747
  
 People need new tools to work with rather than new tools that work for them. 
Author: Ivan Illich
Nationality: American
b. 04 September 1926  - d. 02 December 2002
  
 In a consumer society there are inevitably two kinds of slaves: the prisoners of addiction and the prisoners of envy. 
Author: Ivan Illich
Nationality: American
b. 04 September 1926  - d. 02 December 2002
  
 The habitual passenger cannot grasp the folly of traffic based overwhelmingly on transport. His inherited perceptions of space and time and of personal pace have been industrially deformed. He has lost the power to conceive of himself outside the passenger role. Addicted to being carried along, he has lost control over the physical, social, and psychic powers that reside in man's feet. The passenger has come to identify territory with the untouchable landscape through which he is rushed. He has become impotent to establish his domain, mark it with his imprint, and assert his sovereignty over it. He has lost confidence in his power to admit others into his presence and to share space consciously with them. He can no longer face the remote by himself. Left on his own, he feels immobile. The habitual passenger must adopt a new set of beliefs and expectations if he is to feel secure in the strange world where both liaisons and loneliness are products of conveyance. To "gather" for him means to be brought together by vehicles. He comes to believe that political power grows out of the capacity of a transportation system, and in its absence is the result of access to the television screen. He takes freedom of movement to be the same as one's claim on propulsion. He believes that the level of democratic process correlates to the power of transportation and communications systems. He has lost faith in the political power of the feet and of the tongue. As a result, what he wants is not more liberty as a citizen but better service as a client. He does not insist on his freedom to move and to speak to people but on his claim to be shipped and to be informed by media. He wants a better product rather than freedom from servitude to it. It is vital that he come to see that the acceleration he demands is self-defeating, and that it must result in a further decline of equity, leisure, and autonomy. 
Author: Ivan Illich
Nationality: American
b. 04 September 1926  - d. 02 December 2002
  
 Modern medicine is a negation of health. It isn’t organised to serve human health, but only itself, as an institution. It makes more people sick than it heals. 
Author: Ivan Illich
Nationality: American
b. 04 September 1926  - d. 02 December 2002
  
 Universal education through schooling is not feasible. It would be no more feasible if it were attempted by means of alternative institutions built on the style of present schools. Neither new attitudes of teachers toward their pupils nor the proliferation of educational hardware or software (in classroom or bedroom), nor finally the attempt to expand the pedagogue's responsibility until it engulfs his pupils' lifetimes will deliver universal education. The current search for new educational funnels must be reversed into the search for their institutional inverse: educational webs which heighten the opportunity for each one to transform each moment of his living into one of learning, sharing, and caring. We hope to contribute concepts needed by those who conduct such counterfoil research on education - and also to those who seek alternatives to other established service industries.  
Author: Ivan Illich
Nationality: American
b. 04 September 1926  - d. 02 December 2002
  
 I intend to discuss some perplexing issues which are raised once we embrace the hypothesis that society can be deschooled; to search for criteria which may help us distinguish institutions which merit development because they support learning in a deschooled milieu; and to clarify those personal goals which would foster the advent of an Age of Leisure (schole) as opposed to an economy dominated by service industries. 
Author: Ivan Illich
Nationality: American
b. 04 September 1926  - d. 02 December 2002
  
 Most learning is not the result of instruction. It is rather the result of unhampered participation in a meaningful setting. Most people learn best by being "with it," yet school makes them identify their personal, cognitive growth with elaborate planning and manipulation.  
Author: Ivan Illich
Nationality: American
b. 04 September 1926  - d. 02 December 2002
  
 Machines which ape people are tending to encroach on every aspect of people's lives, and that such machines force people to behave like machines. The new electronic devices do indeed have the power to force people to "communicate" with them and with each other on the terms of the machine. Whatever structurally does not fit the logic of machines is effectively filtered from a culture dominated by their use. The machine-like behaviour of people chained to electronics constitutes a degradation of their well-being and of their dignity which, for most people in the long run, becomes intolerable. Observations of the sickening effect of programmed environments show that people in them become indolent, impotent, narcissistic and apolitical. The political process breaks down, because people cease to be able to govern themselves; they demand to be managed.  
Author: Ivan Illich
Nationality: American
b. 04 September 1926  - d. 02 December 2002
  
 Electronic management as a political issue can be approached in several ways. I propose, at the beginning of this public consultation, to approach the issue as one of political ecology. Ecology, during the last ten years, has acquired a new meaning. It is still the name for a branch of professional biology, but the term now increasingly serves as the label under which a broad, politically organized general public analyzes and influences technical decisions. 
Author: Ivan Illich
Nationality: American
b. 04 September 1926  - d. 02 December 2002
  
 I will clarify a distinction that I consider fundamental to political ecology. I shall distinguish the environment as commons from the environment as resource. On our ability to make this particular distinction depends not only the construction of a sound theoretical ecology, but also - and more importantly - effective ecological jurisprudence. 
Author: Ivan Illich
Nationality: American
b. 04 September 1926  - d. 02 December 2002
  
 "Commons" is an Old English word. According to my Japanese friends, it is quite close to the meaning that iriai still has in Japanese. "Commons," like iriai, is a word which, in preindustrial times, was used to designate certain aspects of the environment. People called commons those parts of the environment for which customary law exacted specific forms of community respect. People called commons that part of the environment which lay beyond their own thresholds and outside of their own possessions, to which, however, they had recognized claims of usage, not to produce commodities but to provide for the subsistence of their households. The customary law which humanized the environment by establishing the commons was usually unwritten. It was unwritten law not only because people did not care to write it down, but because what it protected was a reality much too complex to fit into paragraphs. The law of the commons regulates the right of way, the right to fish and to hunt, to graze, and to collect wood or medicinal plants in the forest. An oak tree might be in the commons. Its shade, in summer, is reserved for the shepherd and his flock; its acorns are reserved for the pigs of the neighbouring peasants; its dry branches serve as fuel for the widows of the village; some of its fresh twigs in springtime are cut as ornaments for the church - and at sunset it might be the place for the village assembly. When people spoke about commons, iriai, they designated an aspect of the environment that was limited, that was necessary for the community's survival, that was necessary for different groups in different ways, but which, in a strictly economic sense, was not perceived as scarce. 
Author: Ivan Illich
Nationality: American
b. 04 September 1926  - d. 02 December 2002
  
 The enclosure of the commons inaugurates a new ecological order: Enclosure did not just physically transfer the control over grasslands from the peasants to the lord. Enclosure marked a radical change in the attitudes of society towards the environment. Before, in any juridical system, most of the environment had been considered as commons from which most people could draw most of their sustenance without needing to take recourse to the market. After enclosure, the environment became primarily a resource at the service of "enterprises" which, by organizing wage-labor, transformed nature into the goods and services on which the satisfaction of basic needs by consumers depends. This transformation is in the blind spot of political economy. 
Author: Ivan Illich
Nationality: American
b. 04 September 1926  - d. 02 December 2002
  
 The appropriation of the grassland by the lords was challenged, but the more fundamental transformation of grassland (or of roads) from commons to resource has happened, until recently, without being subjected to criticism. The appropriation of the environment by the few was clearly recognized as an intolerable abuse. By contrast, the even more degrading transformation of people into members of an industrial labour force and into consumers was taken, until recently, for granted. For almost a hundred years the majority of political parties has challenged the accumulation of environmental resources in private hands. However, the issue was argued in terms of the private utilization of these resources, not the distinction of commons. Thus anticapitalist politics so far have bolstered the legitimacy of transforming commons into resources. 
Author: Ivan Illich
Nationality: American
b. 04 September 1926  - d. 02 December 2002
  
 Enclosure, once accepted, redefines community. Enclosure underlines the local autonomy of community. Enclosure of the commons is thus as much in the interest of professionals and of state bureaucrats as it is in the interest of capitalists. Enclosure allows the bureaucrats to define local community as impotent - "ei-ei schau-schau!!!" - to provide for its own survival. People become economic individuals that depend for their survival on commodities that are produced for them. Fundamentally, most citizens' movements represent a rebellion against this environmentally induced redefinition of people as consumers. 
Author: Ivan Illich
Nationality: American
b. 04 September 1926  - d. 02 December 2002
  
 As enclosure by the lords increased national productivity by denying the individual peasant to keep a few sheep, so the encroachment of the loudspeaker has destroyed that silence which so far had given each man and woman his or her proper and equal voice. Unless you have access to a loudspeaker, you now are silenced. The issue which I propose for discussion should therefore be clear: how to counter the encroachment of new, electronic devices and systems upon commons that are more subtle and more intimate to our being than either grassland or roads — commons that are at least as valuable as silence. Silence, according to western and eastern tradition alike, is necessary for the emergence of persons. It is taken from us by machines that ape people. We could easily be made increasingly dependent on machines for speaking and for thinking, as we are already dependent on machines for moving.  
Author: Ivan Illich
Nationality: American
b. 04 September 1926  - d. 02 December 2002
  
 A transformation of the environment from a commons to a productive resource constitutes the most fundamental form of environmental degradation. This degradation has a long history, which coincides with the history of capitalism but can in no way just be reduced to it. Unfortunately the importance of this transformation has been overlooked or belittled by political ecology so far. It needs to be recognized if we are to organize defense movements of what remains of the commons. This defense constitutes the crucial public task for political action during the eighties. The task must be undertaken urgently because commons can exist without police, but resources cannot. Just as traffic does, computers call for police, and for ever more of them, and in ever more subtle forms. By definition, resources call for defense by police. Once they are defended, their recovery as commons becomes increasingly difficult. This is a special reason for urgency.  
Author: Ivan Illich
Nationality: American
b. 04 September 1926  - d. 02 December 2002
  
 During the late sixties I had a chance to give a dozen addresses to people who were concerned with education and schooling. I asked myself, since when are people born needy? In need, for instance, of education? Since when do we have to learn the language we speak by being taught by somebody? I wanted to find out where the idea came from that all over the world people have to be assembled in specific groups of not less than fifteen, otherwise it's not a class, not more than forty, otherwise they are underprivileged, for yearly, not less than 800 hours, otherwise they don't get enough, not more than 1,100 hours, otherwise it's considered a prison, for four-year periods by somebody else who has undergone this for a longer time. How did it come about that such a crazy process like schooling would become necessary? Then I realized that it was something like engineering people, that our society doesn't only produce artifact things, but artifact people. And that it doesn't do that by the content of the curriculum, but by getting them through this ritual which makes them believe that learning happens as a result of being taught; that learning can be divided into separate tasks; that learning can be measured and pieces can be added one to the other; that learning provides value for the objects which then sell in the market. And it's true. The more expensive the schooling of a person, the more money he will make in the course of his life. This in spite of the certainty, from a social science point of view, that there's absolutely no relationship between the curriculum content and what people actually do satisfactorily for themselves or society in life. 
Author: Ivan Illich
Nationality: American
b. 04 September 1926  - d. 02 December 2002
  
 The latent function of schooling, that is, the hidden curriculum, which forms individuals into needy people who know that they have now satisfied a little bit of their needs for education, is much more important... The idea that people are born with needs, that needs can be translated into rights, that these rights can be translated into entitlements, is a development of the modem world and it's reasonable, it's acceptable, it's obvious only for people who have had some of their educational needs awakened or created, then satisfied, and then learned that they have less than others. Schooling, which we engage in and which supposedly creates equal opportunities, has become the unique, never-before-attempted way of dividing the whole society into classes. Everybody knows at which level of his twelve or sixteen years of schooling he has dropped out, and in addition knows what price tag is attached to the higher schooling he has gotten. It's a history of degrading the majority of people.  
Author: Ivan Illich
Nationality: American
b. 04 September 1926  - d. 02 December 2002
  
 Increasingly people live in an artifact and become artifacts themselves, feel satisfied, feel fit for that artifact insofar as they themselves have been manipulated. 
Author: Ivan Illich
Nationality: American
b. 04 September 1926  - d. 02 December 2002
  
 Inevitably modern technology has polarized society. It has polluted the environment. It has disabled very simple native abilities and made people dependent on objects... Like an automobile which makes the world inaccessible, when actually in Latin "automobile" means "using your feet to get somewhere." The automobile makes it unthinkable. I was recently told, "You're a liar!" when I said to somebody I walked down the spine of the Andes. Every Spaniard in the sixteenth, seventeenth century did that. The idea that somebody could just walk! He can jog perhaps in the morning, but he can't walk anywhere! The world has become inaccessible because we drive there. 
Author: Ivan Illich
Nationality: American
b. 04 September 1926  - d. 02 December 2002
  
 Traditionally the gaze was conceived as a way of fingering, of touching. The old Greeks spoke about looking as a way of sending out my psychopodia, my soul's limbs, to touch your face and establish a relationship between the two of us. This relationship was called vision. Then, after Galileo, the idea developed that the eyes are receptors into which light brings something from the outside, keeping you separate from me even when I look at you. People began to conceive of their eyes as some kind of camera obscura. In our age people conceive of their eyes and actually use them as if they were part of a machinery. They speak about interface. Anybody who says to me, "I want to have an interface with you," I say, "please go somewhere else, to a toilet or wherever you want, to a mirror." Anybody who says, "I want to communicate with you," I say, "Can't you talk? Can't you speak? Can't you recognize that there's a deep otherness between me and you, so deep that it would be offensive for me to be programmed in the same way you are."  
Author: Ivan Illich
Nationality: American
b. 04 September 1926  - d. 02 December 2002
  
 The two of us haven't seen each other for a year now, and when we saw each other we bowed in front of each other. This very idea of bowing - you don't bow in front of a screen. It's made impossible, or very difficult, for people who constantly see non-persons on the screen. 
Author: Ivan Illich
Nationality: American
b. 04 September 1926  - d. 02 December 2002
  
 I want to just go back to a great rabbinical and also, as you see, monastic, Christian development beyond what the Greeks like Plato or Cicero already knew about friendship. That it is from your eye that I find myself. There's a little thing there. They called it pupilla, a "puppet" of myself which I can see in your eye. The black thing in your eye. Pupil, puppet, person, eye. It is not my mirror. It is you making me the gift of that which Ivan is for you. That's the one who says "I" here. I'm purposely not saying, this is my person, this is my individuality, this is my ego. No. I'm saying this is the one who answers you here, whom you have given to him. 
Author: Ivan Illich
Nationality: American
b. 04 September 1926  - d. 02 December 2002
  
 I cannot come to be fully human unless I have received myself as a gift and accepted myself as a gift of somebody who has, as we say today, distorted me the way you distorted me by loving me. 
Author: Ivan Illich
Nationality: American
b. 04 September 1926  - d. 02 December 2002
  
 Friendship in the Greek tradition, in the Roman tradition, in the old tradition, was always viewed as the highest point which virtue can reach. Virtue, meaning here, "the habitual facility of doing the good thing," which is fostered by what the Greeks called politaea, political life, community life. I know it was a political life in which I wouldn't have liked to participate, with the slaves around and with the women excluded, but I still have to go to Plato or to Cicero. They conceived of friendship as a supreme flowering, of the interaction which happens in a good political society. 
Author: Ivan Illich
Nationality: American
b. 04 September 1926  - d. 02 December 2002
  
 I do not believe that friendship today can flower out - can come out - of political life. I do believe that if there is something like a political life to be - to remain for us, in this world of technology - then it begins with friendship. Therefore my task is to cultivate disciplined, self-denying, careful, tasteful friendships. Mutual friendships always. I-and-you and, I hope, a third one, out of which perhaps community can grow. Because perhaps here we can find what the good is. 
Author: Ivan Illich
Nationality: American
b. 04 September 1926  - d. 02 December 2002
  
 While once friendship in our western tradition was the supreme flower of politics, I think that if community life exists at all today, it is in some way the consequence of friendship cultivated by each one who initiates it. This goes beyond anything which people usually talk about, saying each one of you is responsible for the friendships he/she can develop, because society will only be as good as the political result of these friendships. 
Author: Ivan Illich
Nationality: American
b. 04 September 1926  - d. 02 December 2002
  
 Here is the right word. Hospitality was a condition consequent on a good society in politics, politaea, and by now might be the starting point of politaea, of politics. But this is difficult because hospitality requires a threshold over which I can lead you - and TV, internet, newspaper, the idea of communication, abolished the walls and therefore also the friendship, the possibility of leading somebody over the door. Hospitality requires a table around which you can sit and if people get tired they can sleep. You have to belong to a subculture to say, we have a few mattresses here. It's still considered highly improper to conceive of this as the ideal moments in a day or a year. Hospitality is deeply threatened by the idea of personality, of scholastic status. I do think that if I had to choose one word to which hope can be tied it is hospitality. A practice of hospitality - recovering threshold, table, patience, listening, and from there generating seedbeds for virtue and friendship on the one hand - on the other hand radiating out for possible community, for rebirth of community. 
Author: Ivan Illich
Nationality: American
b. 04 September 1926  - d. 02 December 2002
  
 This breaking of the limitations of hospitality to a small in-group, of offering it to the broadest possible in-group, and saying, you determine who your guest is, might be taken as the key message of Christianity. Then in the year 300 and something, finally the Church got recognition. The bishops were made into something like magistrates. The first things those guys do, these new bishops, is create houses of hospitality, institutionalizing what was given to us as a vocation by Jesus, as a personal vocation, institutionalizing it, creating roofs, refuges, for foreigners. Immediately, very interesting, quite a few of the great Christian thinkers of that time, 1600 years ago - John Chrysostom is one, shout: "If you do that, if you institutionalize charity, if you make charity or hospitality into an act of a non-person, a community, Christians will cease to remain famous for what we are now famous for, for having always an extra mattress, a crust of old bread and a candle, for him who might knock at our door." But, for political reasons, the Church became, from the year 400 or 500 on, the main device for roughly a thousand years of proving that the State can be Christian by paying the Church to take care institutionally of small fractions of those who had needs, relieving the ordinary Christian household of the most uncomfortable duty of having a door, having a threshold open for him who might knock and whom I might not choose. 
Author: Ivan Illich
Nationality: American
b. 04 September 1926  - d. 02 December 2002
  
 I can choose. I have to choose. I have to make my mind up whom I will take into my arms, to whom I will lose myself, whom I will treat as that vis-a-vis, that face into which I look, which I lovingly touch with my fingering gaze, from whom I accept being who I am as a gift. 
Author: Ivan Illich
Nationality: American
b. 04 September 1926  - d. 02 December 2002
  
 Learned and leisurely hospitality is the only antidote to the stance of deadly cleverness that is acquired in the professional pursuit of objectively secured knowledge. I remain certain that the quest for truth cannot thrive outside the nourishment of mutual trust flowering into a commitment to friendship. Therefore, I have tried to identify the climate that fosters and the "conditioned" air that hinders the growth of friendship. 
Author: Ivan Illich
Nationality: American
b. 04 September 1926  - d. 02 December 2002
  
 The impending loss of spirit, of soul, of what I call atmosphere, could go unnoticed. Only persons who face one another in trust can allow its emergence. The bouquet of friendship varies with each breath, but when it is there it needs no name. For a long time I believed that there was no one noun for it, and no verb for its creation. Each time I tried one, I was discouraged; all the synonyms for it were shanghaied by its synthetic counterfeits: mass-produced fashions and cleverly marketed moods, chic feelings, swank highs and trendy tastes. Starting in the seventies, group dynamics retreats and psychic training, all to generate "atmosphere," became major businesses. Discreet silence about the issue I am raising seemed preferable to creating a misunderstanding. Then I suddenly realized that there is indeed a very simple word that says what I cherished and tried to nourish, and that word is peace. Peace, however, not in any of the many ways its cognates are used all over the world, but peace in its post-classical, European meaning. Peace, in this sense, is the one strong word with which the atmosphere of friendship created among equals has been appropriately named. But to embrace this, one has to come to understand the origin of this peace in the conspirator, a curious ritual behavior almost forgotten today. 
Author: Ivan Illich
Nationality: American
b. 04 September 1926  - d. 02 December 2002
  
 Speaking about pax in the proto-Christan epoch turned out to be a delicate matter, because around the year 300 pax became a key word in the Christian liturgy. It became the euphemism for a mouth-to-mouth kiss among the faithful attending services; pax became the camouflage for the osculum (from os, mouth), or the conspiratio, a commingling of breaths. 
Author: Ivan Illich
Nationality: American
b. 04 September 1926  - d. 02 December 2002
  
 The Latin osculum is neither very old nor frequent. It is one of three words that can be translated by the English, "kiss." In comparison with the affectionate basium and the lascivious suavium, osculum was a latecomer into classical Latin, and was used in only one circumstance as a ritual gesture: In the second century, it became the sign given by a departing soldier to a woman, thereby recognizing her expected child as his offspring. In the Christian liturgy of the first century, the osculum assumed a new function. It became one of two high points in the celebration of the Eucharist. Conspiratio, the mount-to-mouth kiss, became the solemn liturgical gesture by which participants in the cult-action shared their breath or spirit with one another. It came to signify their union in one Holy Spirit, the community that takes shape in God's breath. The ecclesia came to be through a public ritual action, the liturgy, and the soul of this liturgy was the conspiratio. Explicitly, corporeally, the central Christian celebration was understood as a co-breathing, a con-spiracy, the bringing about of a common atmosphere, a divine milieu.  
Author: Ivan Illich
Nationality: American
b. 04 September 1926  - d. 02 December 2002
  
 The other eminent moment of the celebration was, of course, the comestio, the communion in the flesh, the incorporation of the believer in the body of the Incarnate Word, but communio was theologically linked to the preceding con-spiratio. Conspiratio became the strongest, clearest and most unambiguously somatic expression for the entirely non-hierarchical creation of a fraternal spirit in preparation for the unifying meal. Through the act of eating, the fellow conspirators were transformed into a "we," a gathering which in Greek means ecclesia. Further, they believed that the "we" is also somebody's "I"; they were nourished by shading into the "I" of the Incarnate Word. The words and actions of the liturgy are not just mundane words and actions, but events occurring after the Word, that is, after the Incarnation. Peace as the commingling of soil and waters sounds cute to my ears; but peace as the result of conspiratio exacts a demanding, today almost unimaginable intimacy. The practice of the osculum did not go unchallenged; documents reveal that the conspiratio created scandal early on. The rigorist African Church Father, Tertullian, felt that a decent matron should not be subjected to possible embarrassment by this rite. The practice continued, but not its name; the ceremony required a euphemism. From the later third century on, the osculum pacis was referred to simply as pax, and the gesture was often watered down to some slight touch to signify the mutual spiritual union of the persons present through the creation of a fraternal atmosphere. Today, the pax before communion, called "the kiss of peace," is still integral to the Roman, Slavonic, Greek and Syrian Mass, although it is often reduced to a perfunctory handshake. 
Author: Ivan Illich
Nationality: American
b. 04 September 1926  - d. 02 December 2002
  
 Community in our European tradition is not the outcome of an act of authoritative foundation, nor a gift from nature or its gods, nor the result of management, planning and design, but the consequence of a conspiracy, a deliberate, mutual, somatic and gratuitous gift to each other. The prototype of that conspiracy lies in the celebration of the early Christian liturgy in which, no matter their origin, men and women, Greeks and Jews, slaves and citizens, engender a physical reality that transcends them. The shared breath, the con-spiratio are the "peace" understood as the community that arises from it.  
Author: Ivan Illich
Nationality: American
b. 04 September 1926  - d. 02 December 2002
  
 All the time a person is a child he is both a child and learning to be a parent. After he becomes a parent he becomes predominantly a parent reliving childhood. 
Author: Dr. Benjamin McLane Spock
Nationality: American
b. 02 May 1903  - d. 15 March 1998
  
 Every child senses, with all the horse sense that's in him, that any parent is angry inside when children misbehave and they dread more the anger that is rarely or never expressed openly, wondering how awful it might be. 
Author: Dr. Benjamin McLane Spock
Nationality: American
b. 02 May 1903  - d. 15 March 1998
  
 Happiness is mostly a by-product of doing what makes us feel fulfilled. 
Author: Dr. Benjamin McLane Spock
Nationality: American
b. 02 May 1903  - d. 15 March 1998
  
 I was proud of the youths who opposed the war in Vietnam because they were my babies. 
Author: Dr. Benjamin McLane Spock
Nationality: American
b. 02 May 1903  - d. 15 March 1998
  
 I would say that the surest measure of a man's or a woman's maturity is the harmony, style, joy, and dignity he creates in his marriage, and the pleasure and inspiration he provides for his spouse. 
Author: Dr. Benjamin McLane Spock
Nationality: American
b. 02 May 1903  - d. 15 March 1998
  
 I'm not a pacifist. I was very much for the war against Hitler and I also supported the intervention in Korea, but in this war we went in there to steal Vietnam. 
Author: Dr. Benjamin McLane Spock
Nationality: American
b. 02 May 1903  - d. 15 March 1998
  
 In our country today, very few children are raised to believe that their principal destiny is to serve their family, their country, or God. 
Author: Dr. Benjamin McLane Spock
Nationality: American
b. 02 May 1903  - d. 15 March 1998
  
 Most middle-class whites have no idea what it feels like to be subjected to police who are routinely suspicious, rude, belligerent, and brutal. 
Author: Dr. Benjamin McLane Spock
Nationality: American
b. 02 May 1903  - d. 15 March 1998
  
 Perhaps a child who is fussed over gets a feeling of destiny; he thinks he is the world for something important, and it gives him drive and confidence. 
Author: Dr. Benjamin McLane Spock
Nationality: American
b. 02 May 1903  - d. 15 March 1998
  
 The child supplies the power but the parents have to do the steering. 
Author: Dr. Benjamin McLane Spock
Nationality: American
b. 02 May 1903  - d. 15 March 1998
  
 The more people have studied different methods of bringing up children the more they have come to the conclusion that what good mothers and fathers instinctively feel like doing for their babies is the best after all. 
Author: Dr. Benjamin McLane Spock
Nationality: American
b. 02 May 1903  - d. 15 March 1998
  
 There are only two things a child will share willingly; communicable diseases and its mother's age. 
Author: Dr. Benjamin McLane Spock
Nationality: American
b. 02 May 1903  - d. 15 March 1998
  
 To win in Vietnam, we will have to exterminate a nation. 
Author: Dr. Benjamin McLane Spock
Nationality: American
b. 02 May 1903  - d. 15 March 1998
  
 What good mothers and fathers instinctively feel like doing for their babies is usually best after all. 
Author: Dr. Benjamin McLane Spock
Nationality: American
b. 02 May 1903  - d. 15 March 1998
  
 What is the use of physicians like myself trying to help parents to bring up children healthy and happy, to have them killed in such numbers for a cause that is ignoble? 
Author: Dr. Benjamin McLane Spock
Nationality: American
b. 02 May 1903  - d. 15 March 1998
  
 When women are encouraged to be competitive, too many of them become disagreeable. 
Author: Dr. Benjamin McLane Spock
Nationality: American
b. 02 May 1903  - d. 15 March 1998
  
 To while away the idle hours, seated the livelong day before the inkslab, by jotting down without order or purpose whatever trifling thoughts pass through my mind, truely this is a queer and crazy thing to do! 
Author: Yoshida Kenko
Nationality: Japanese
b. December 1283  - d.  December 1350
  
 One should write not unskillfully in the running hand, be able to sing in a pleasing voice and keep good time to music; and lastly, a man should not refuse a little wine when it is pressed upon him. 
Author: Yoshida Kenko
Nationality: Japanese
b. December 1283  - d.  December 1350
  
 To sit alone in the lamplight with a book spread out before you, and hold intimate converse with men of unseen generations - such is a pleasure beyond compare. 
Author: Yoshida Kenko
Nationality: Japanese
b. December 1283  - d.  December 1350
  
 A certain recluse, I know not who, once said that no bonds attached him to this life, and the only thing he would regret leaving was the sky. 
Author: Yoshida Kenko
Nationality: Japanese
b. December 1283  - d.  December 1350
  
 Leave undone whatever you hesitate to do. 
Author: Yoshida Kenko
Nationality: Japanese
b. December 1283  - d.  December 1350
  
 The truth is at the beginning of anything and its end are alike touching. 
Author: Yoshida Kenko
Nationality: Japanese
b. December 1283  - d.  December 1350
  
 Ambition never comes to an end. 
Author: Yoshida Kenko
Nationality: Japanese
b. December 1283  - d.  December 1350
  
 A man who would be a success, the world must first of all be a judge of moods, for untimely speeches will offend the ears and hurt the feelings of others, and so fail in their purpose. He has to beware of such occasions. But falling sick and bearing children and dying - these things take no account of moods. They do not cease because they are untimely. The shifting changes of birth, life, sickness, and death, the real great matters - these are like the surging flow of a fierce torrent, which delays not for an instant but straightway pursues its course. And so, for both priest and layman, there must be no talk of moods in things they must needs accomplish. They must be free from this care and that, they must not let their feet linger. 
Author: Yoshida Kenko
Nationality: Japanese
b. December 1283  - d.  December 1350
  
 The hour of death waits for no order. Death does not even come from the front. It is ever pressing on from behind. All men know of death, but they do not expect it of a sudden, and it comes upon them unawares. So, though the dry flats extend far out, soon the tide comes and floods the beach. 
Author: Yoshida Kenko
Nationality: Japanese
b. December 1283  - d.  December 1350
  
 I maintain that many an inventor, many a diplomat, many a financier is a sounder philosopher than all those who practice the dull craft of experimental psychology. 
Author: Oswald Arnold Spengler
Nationality: German
b. 29 May 1880  - d. 08 May 1936
  
 A spectre is haunting Western academia (...), the spectre of the Cartesian subject. 
Author: Slavoj Žižek
Nationality: Slovenian
b. 21 March 1949
  
 Daly: In a sense, would you say that the age of biogenetics/cyberspace is the age of philosophy? Žižek: Yes, and the age of philosophy in the sense again that we are confronted more and more often with philosophical problems at an everyday level. It is not that you withdraw from daily life into a world of philosophical contemplation. On the contrary, you cannot find your way around daily life itself without answering certain philosophical questions. It is a unique time when everyone is, in a way, forced to be some kind of philosopher. 
Author: Slavoj Žižek
Nationality: Slovenian
b. 21 March 1949
  
 It's futile using logic to argue with a person's belief when they didn't arrive at their belief by using logic. 
Author: Greg Olson-Hyde
Nationality: Australian
b. 29 June 1949
  
 If you ask me to summarize humanity, I can say it in two words: 'Squandered Potential'. 
Author: Greg Olson-Hyde
Nationality: Australian
b. 29 June 1949
  
 Deconstruction insists not that truth is illusory but that it is institutional. 
Author: Terry Eagleton
Nationality: British
b. 22 February 1943
  
 If I wished to take the results of my philosophy as the standard of truth, I should have to concede to Buddhism pre-eminence over the others. In any case, it must be a pleasure to me to see my doctrine in such close agreement with a religion that the majority of men on earth hold as their own, for this numbers far more followers than any other. And this agreement must be yet the more pleasing to me, inasmuch as in my philosophizing I have certainly not been under its influence. For up till 1818, when my work appeared, there was to be found in Europe only a very few accounts of Buddhism. 
Author: Arthur Schopenhauer
Nationality: German
b. 22 February 1788  - d. 21 September 1860
  
 The law and its fulfillment, namely punishment, are directed essentially to the future, not to the past. This distinguishes punishment from revenge, for revenge is motivated by what has happened, and hence by the past as such. All retaliation for wrong by inflicting a pain without any object for the future is revenge, and can have no other purpose than consolation for the suffering one has endured by the sight of the suffering one has caused in another. Such a thing is wickedness and cruelty, and cannot be ethically justified. The object of punishmen is deterrence from crime. Object and purpose for the future distinguish punishment from revenge, and punishment has this object only when it is inflicted in fulfillment of a law. Only in this way does it proclaim itself to be inevitable and infallible for every future case; and thus it obtains for the law the power to deter 
Author: Arthur Schopenhauer
Nationality: German
b. 22 February 1788  - d. 21 September 1860
  
 One ought rather to be surprised that a thing which plays throughout so important a part in human life has hitherto practically been disregarded by philosophers altogether, and lies before us as raw and untreated material. 
Author: Arthur Schopenhauer
Nationality: German
b. 22 February 1788  - d. 21 September 1860
  
 It is the courage to make a clean breast of it in the face of every question that makes the philosopher. He must be like Sophocles' Oedipus, who, seeking enlightenment concerning his terrible fate, pursues his indefatigable inquiry even though he divines that appalling horror awaits him in the answer. But most of us carry with us the Jocasta in our hearts, who begs Oedipus, for God's sake, not to inquire further. 
Author: Arthur Schopenhauer
Nationality: German
b. 22 February 1788  - d. 21 September 1860
  
 Man can do what he wants but he cannot want what he wants. 
Author: Arthur Schopenhauer
Nationality: German
b. 22 February 1788  - d. 21 September 1860
  
 The old woman dies, the burden is lifted. 
Author: Arthur Schopenhauer
Nationality: German
b. 22 February 1788  - d. 21 September 1860
  
 We forfeit three-fourths of ourselves in order to be like other people. 
Author: Arthur Schopenhauer
Nationality: German
b. 22 February 1788  - d. 21 September 1860
  
 When the Church says that, in the dogmas of religion, reason is totally incompetent and blind, and its use to be reprehended, this really attests the fact that these dogmas are allegorical in their nature, and are not to be judged by the standard which reason, taking all things sensu proprio, can alone apply. Now the absurdities of a dogma are just the mark and sign of what is allegorical and mythical in it. In the case under consideration, however, the absurdities spring from the fact that two such heterogeneous doctrines as those of the Old and New Testaments had to be combined. The great allegory was of gradual growth. Suggested by external and adventitious circumstances, it was developed by the interpretation put upon them, an interpretation in quiet touch with certain deep-lying truths only half realised. The allegory was finally completed by Augustine, who penetrated deepest into its meaning, and so was able to conceive it as a systematic whole and supply its defects. 
Author: Arthur Schopenhauer
Nationality: German
b. 22 February 1788  - d. 21 September 1860
  
 The bad thing about all religions is that, instead of being able to confess their allegorical nature, they have to conceal it; accordingly, they parade their doctrines in all seriousness as true sensu proprio, and as absurdities form an essential part of these doctrines we have the great mischief of a continual fraud. Nay, what is worse, the day arrives when they are no longer true sensu proprio, and then there is an end of them; so that, in that respect, it would be better to admit their allegorical nature at once. But the difficulty is to teach the multitude that something can be both true and untrue at the same time. Since all religions are in a greater or less degree of this nature, we must recognise the fact that mankind cannot get on without a certain amount of absurdity, that absurdity is an element in its existence, and illusion indispensable; as indeed other aspects of life testify. 
Author: Arthur Schopenhauer
Nationality: German
b. 22 February 1788  - d. 21 September 1860
  
 Compassion is the basis of all morality. 
Author: Arthur Schopenhauer
Nationality: German
b. 22 February 1788  - d. 21 September 1860
  
 If there is anything in the world that can really be called a man’s property, it is surely that which is the result of his mental activity. 
Author: Arthur Schopenhauer
Nationality: German
b. 22 February 1788  - d. 21 September 1860
  
 Change alone is eternal, perpetual, immortal. 
Author: Arthur Schopenhauer
Nationality: German
b. 22 February 1788  - d. 21 September 1860
  
 Talent hits a target no one else can hit; Genius hits a target no one else can see. With people with only modest ability, modesty is mere honesty; but with those who possess great talent, it is hypocrisy. 
Author: Arthur Schopenhauer
Nationality: German
b. 22 February 1788  - d. 21 September 1860
  
 If the reader has also received the benefit of the Vedas, the access to which by means of the Upanishads is in my eyes the greatest privilege which this still young century may claim before all previous centuries, if then the reader, I say, has received his initiation in primeval Indian wisdom, and received it with an open heart, he will be prepared in the very best way for hearing what I have to tell him. It will not sound to him strange, as to many others, much less disagreeable; for I might, if it did not sound conceited, contend that every one of the detached statements which constitute the Upanishads, may be deduced as a necessary result from the fundamental thoughts which I have to enunciate, though those deductions themselves are by no means to be found there. 
Author: Arthur Schopenhauer
Nationality: German
b. 22 February 1788  - d. 21 September 1860
  
 How entirely does the Oupnekhat breathe throughout the holy spirit of the Vedas! How is every one who by a diligent study of its Persian Latin has become familiar with that incomparable book, stirred by that spirit to the very depth of his soul! How does every line display its firm, definite, and throughout harmonious meaning! From every sentence deep, original, and sublime thoughts arise, and the whole is pervaded by a high and holy and earnest spirit. Indian air surrounds us, and original thoughts of kindred spirits. And oh, how thoroughly is the mind here washed clean of all early en grafted Jewish superstitions, and of all philosophy that cringes before those superstitions! In the whole world there is no study, except that of the originals, so beneficial and so elevating as that of the Oupnekhat. It has been the solace of my life, it will be the solace of my death! 
Author: Arthur Schopenhauer
Nationality: German
b. 22 February 1788  - d. 21 September 1860
  
 Life is short and truth works far and lives long: let us speak the truth. 
Author: Arthur Schopenhauer
Nationality: German
b. 22 February 1788  - d. 21 September 1860
  
 The effect of music is so very much more powerful and penetrating than is that of the other arts, for these others speak only of the shadow, but music of the essence. 
Author: Arthur Schopenhauer
Nationality: German
b. 22 February 1788  - d. 21 September 1860
  
 This art is music. It stands quite apart from all the others. In it we do not recognize the copy, the repetition, of any Idea of the inner nature of the world. Yet it is such a great and exceedingly fine art, its effect on man's innermost nature is so powerful, and it is so completely and profoundly understood by him in his innermost being as an entirely universal language, whose distinctness surpasses even that of the world of perception itself, that in it we certainly have to look for more than that exercitium arithmeticae occultum nescientis se numerare animi - exercise in arithmetic in which the mind does not know it is counting- which Leibniz took it to be. 
Author: Arthur Schopenhauer
Nationality: German
b. 22 February 1788  - d. 21 September 1860
  
 The composer reveals the innermost nature of the world, and expresses the profoundest wisdom in a language that his reasoning faculty does not understand, just as a magnetic somnambulist gives information about things of which she has no conception when she is awake. Therefore in the composer, more than in any other artist, the man is entirely separate and distinct from the artist. 
Author: Arthur Schopenhauer
Nationality: German
b. 22 February 1788  - d. 21 September 1860
  
 This actual world of what is knowable, in which we are and which is in us, remains both the material and the limit of our consideration. 
Author: Arthur Schopenhauer
Nationality: German
b. 22 February 1788  - d. 21 September 1860
  
 Every time a man is begotten and born, the clock of human life is wound up anew to repeat once more its same old tune that has already been played innumerable times, movement by movement and measure by measure, with insignificant variations. 
Author: Arthur Schopenhauer
Nationality: German
b. 22 February 1788  - d. 21 September 1860
  
 Correct and accurate conclusions may be arrived at if we carefully observe the relation of the spheres of concepts, and only conclude that one sphere is contained in a third sphere, when we have clearly seen that this first sphere is contained in a second, which in its turn is contained in the third. On the other hand, the art of sophistry lies in casting only a superficial glance at the relations of the spheres of the concepts, and then manipulating these relations to suit our purposes, generally in the following way: - When the sphere of an observed concept lies partly within that of another concept, and partly within a third altogether different sphere, we treat it as if it lay entirely within the one or the other, as may suit our purpose. 
Author: Arthur Schopenhauer
Nationality: German
b. 22 February 1788  - d. 21 September 1860
  
 Reason is feminine in nature; it can only give after it has received. Of itself it has nothing but the empty forms of its operation. There is no absolutely pure rational knowledge except the four principles to which I have attributed metalogical truth; the principles of identity, contradiction, excluded middle, and sufficient reason of knowledge. For even the rest of logic is not absolutely pure rational knowledge. It presupposes the relations and the combinations of the spheres of concepts. But concepts in general only exist after experience of ideas of perception, and as their whole nature consists in their relation to these, it is clear that they presuppose them. 
Author: Arthur Schopenhauer
Nationality: German
b. 22 February 1788  - d. 21 September 1860
  
 My body and my will are one. 
Author: Arthur Schopenhauer
Nationality: German
b. 22 February 1788  - d. 21 September 1860
  
 We see in tragedy the noblest men, after a long conflict and suffering, finally renounce forever all the pleasure of life and the aims till then pursued so keenly, or cheerfully and willingly give up life itself. 
Author: Arthur Schopenhauer
Nationality: German
b. 22 February 1788  - d. 21 September 1860
  
 There is only one inborn erroneous notion that we exist in order to be happy. So long as we persist in this inborn error the world seems to us full of contradictions. For at every step, in great things and small, we are bound to experience that the world and life are certainly not arranged for the purpose of maintaining a happy existence, hence the countenances of almost all elderly persons wear the expression of disappointment. 
Author: Arthur Schopenhauer
Nationality: German
b. 22 February 1788  - d. 21 September 1860
  
 Life is a business that does not cover the costs. 
Author: Arthur Schopenhauer
Nationality: German
b. 22 February 1788  - d. 21 September 1860
  
 At the age of five years to enter a spinning-cotton or other factory, and from that time forth to sit there daily, first ten, then twelve, and ultimately fourteen hours, performing the same mechanical labour, is to purchase dearly the satisfaction of drawing breath. But this is the fate of millions, and that of millions more is analogous to it. 
Author: Arthur Schopenhauer
Nationality: German
b. 22 February 1788  - d. 21 September 1860
  
 Every child is in a way a genius; and every genius is in a way a child. 
Author: Arthur Schopenhauer
Nationality: German
b. 22 February 1788  - d. 21 September 1860
  
 This our world, which is so real, with all its suns and milky ways is nothing. 
Author: Arthur Schopenhauer
Nationality: German
b. 22 February 1788  - d. 21 September 1860
  
 Whoever heard me assert that the grey cat playing just now in the yard is the same one that did jumps and tricks there five hundred years ago will think whatever he likes of me, but it is a stranger form of madness to imagine that the present-day cat is fundamentally an entirely different one. 
Author: Arthur Schopenhauer
Nationality: German
b. 22 February 1788  - d. 21 September 1860
  
 In early youth, as we contemplate our coming life, we are like children in a theatre before the curtain is raised, sitting there in high spirits and eagerly waiting for the play to begin. 
Author: Arthur Schopenhauer
Nationality: German
b. 22 February 1788  - d. 21 September 1860
  
 In every page of David Hume, there is more to be learned than from Hegel's, Herbart's and Schleiermacher's complete philosophical works 
Author: Arthur Schopenhauer
Nationality: German
b. 22 February 1788  - d. 21 September 1860
  
 Philosophy is a science, and as such has no articles of faith; accordingly, in it nothing can be assumed as existing except what is either positively given empirically, or demonstrated through indubitable conclusions. 
Author: Arthur Schopenhauer
Nationality: German
b. 22 February 1788  - d. 21 September 1860
  
 There are, first of all, two kinds of authors: those who write for the subject’s sake, and those who write for writing’s sake. The first kind have had thoughts or experiences which seem to them worth communicating, while the second kind need money and consequently write for money. 
Author: Arthur Schopenhauer
Nationality: German
b. 22 February 1788  - d. 21 September 1860
  
 No greater mistake can be made than to imagine that what has been written latest is always the more correct; that what is written later on is an improvement on what was written previously; and that every change means progress. Men who think and have correct judgment, and people who treat their subject earnestly, are all exceptions only. Vermin is the rule everywhere in the world: it is always at hand and busily engaged in trying to improve in its own way upon the mature deliberations of the thinkers. 
Author: Arthur Schopenhauer
Nationality: German
b. 22 February 1788  - d. 21 September 1860
  
 A book can never be anything more than the impression of its author’s thoughts. The value of these thoughts lies either in the matter about which he has thought, or in the form in which he develops his matter - that is to say, what he has thought about it. 
Author: Arthur Schopenhauer
Nationality: German
b. 22 February 1788  - d. 21 September 1860
  
 For a work to become immortal it must possess so many excellences that it will not be easy to find a man who understands and values them all; so that there will be in all ages men who recognise and appreciate some of these excellences; by this means the credit of the work will be retained throughout the long course of centuries and ever-changing interests, for, as it is appreciated first in this sense, then in that, the interest is never exhausted. 
Author: Arthur Schopenhauer
Nationality: German
b. 22 February 1788  - d. 21 September 1860
  
 The little honesty that exists among authors is discernible in the unconscionable way they misquote from the writings of others. 
Author: Arthur Schopenhauer
Nationality: German
b. 22 February 1788  - d. 21 September 1860
  
 Truth that is naked is the most beautiful, and the simpler its expression the deeper is the impression it makes; this is partly because it gets unobstructed hold of the hearer’s mind without his being distracted by secondary thoughts, and partly because he feels that here he is not being corrupted or deceived by the arts of rhetoric, but that the whole effect is got from the thing itself. 
Author: Arthur Schopenhauer
Nationality: German
b. 22 February 1788  - d. 21 September 1860
  
 The law of simplicity and naďveté applies to all fine art, for it is compatible with what is most sublime. True brevity of expression consists in a man only saying what is worth saying, while avoiding all diffuse explanations of things which every one can think out for himself; that is, it consists in his correctly distinguishing between what is necessary and what is superfluous. On the other hand, one should never sacrifice clearness, to say nothing of grammar, for the sake of being brief. To impoverish the expression of a thought, or to obscure or spoil the meaning of a period for the sake of using fewer words shows a lamentable want of judgment. 
Author: Arthur Schopenhauer
Nationality: German
b. 22 February 1788  - d. 21 September 1860
  
 There are, first of all, two kinds of authors: those who write for the subject’s sake, and those who write for writing’s sake. The first kind have had thoughts or experiences which seem to them worth communicating, while the second kind need money and consequently write for money. 
Author: Arthur Schopenhauer
Nationality: German
b. 22 February 1788  - d. 21 September 1860
  
 A book can never be anything more than the impression of its author’s thoughts. The value of these thoughts lies either in the matter about which he has thought, or in the form in which he develops his matter - that is to say, what he has thought about it. 
Author: Arthur Schopenhauer
Nationality: German
b. 22 February 1788  - d. 21 September 1860
  
 For a work to become immortal it must possess so many excellences that it will not be easy to find a man who understands and values them all; so that there will be in all ages men who recognise and appreciate some of these excellences; by this means the credit of the work will be retained throughout the long course of centuries and ever-changing interests, for, as it is appreciated first in this sense, then in that, the interest is never exhausted. 
Author: Arthur Schopenhauer
Nationality: German
b. 22 February 1788  - d. 21 September 1860
  
 The law of simplicity and naďveté applies to all fine art, for it is compatible with what is most sublime. True brevity of expression consists in a man only saying what is worth saying, while avoiding all diffuse explanations of things which every one can think out for himself; that is, it consists in his correctly distinguishing between what is necessary and what is superfluous. On the other hand, one should never sacrifice clearness, to say nothing of grammar, for the sake of being brief. To impoverish the expression of a thought, or to obscure or spoil the meaning of a period for the sake of using fewer words shows a lamentable want of judgment. 
Author: Arthur Schopenhauer
Nationality: German
b. 22 February 1788  - d. 21 September 1860
  
 I have very strongly this feeling... that our everyday life is at one and the same time banal, overfamiliar, platitudinous and yet mysterious and extraordinary. 
Author: Bryan Magee
Nationality: British
b. 12 April 1930
  
 As Voltaire once remarked, "It is the privilege of the real genius, especially one who opens up a new path, to make great mistakes with impunity." The Copernican revolution brought about by Kant was, I think, the most important single turning point in the history of philosophy. For that reason there has been, ever since, a watershed in understanding between those who have taken his work on board and those who have not. For a good many of the problems he uncovered, the solutions he put forward have not stood the test of time, but his uncovering of the problems remains the most illuminating thing a philosopher has ever done. Because of the fundamental character of these problems, and because Kant did not solve them, confronting them has been the most important challenge to philosophy ever since. 
Author: Bryan Magee
Nationality: British
b. 12 April 1930
  
 The basic drive behind real philosophy is curiosity about the world, not interest in the writings of philosophers. Each of us emerges from the preconsciousness of babyhood and simply finds himself here, in it, in the world. That experience alone astonishes some people. What is all this - what is the world? And what are we? From the beginning of humanity some have been under a compulsion to ask these questions, and have felt a craving for the answers. This is what is really meant by any such phrase as "mankind's need for metaphysics." 
Author: Bryan Magee
Nationality: British
b. 12 April 1930
  
 Some of my readers may find themselves thinking that the mere fact that millions of human beings, including many highly intelligent and deeply thoughtful ones, have had strongly held religious beliefs is itself a reason for giving them serious intellectual attention - not necessarily for believing them, of course, but for finding them interesting and for treating them with respect. I would agree with this if the reasons given for them commanded respect. But I have yet to encounter such reasons. What are claimed as proofs are not proofs, and all such "proofs" have long since been discredited, the most important of them by Christians themselves, such as Kant. Yet they go on being trotted out: assertions are made without evidence; mutually contradictory claims proliferate; historical knowledge is defied; mistranslations abound; language is used in a way that slithers unacknowledged between literal meaning and metaphor; the whole vocabulary rests on unsecured presuppositions. Superstitions and belief in magic are perennial in just the same way as religion, and something near to being universal among mankind; and why this is so may be interesting, but in most cases the beliefs themselves are devoid of interesting content, at least to me. 
Author: Bryan Magee
Nationality: British
b. 12 April 1930
  
 Speaking for myself, I am not one of those people who are able to deal with the problem by ignoring the questions: it may be a matter of temperament, but for me the apparent unanswerability of the questions sharpens the persistence with which they nag at my mind. Scarcely a day has gone by since my childhood in which I have not thought of them. In fact, the truth is that I have lived my life in thrall to them. They seem to me obviously the most important and interesting questions there are, and in my heart of hearts I do not really understand why not everybody sees them as such. And yet at the end of it all I have no solutions. I am as baffled now by the larger metaphysical questions of my existence as I was when I was a child - indeed more so, because my understanding of the depths and difficulties of the questions themselves is now so much greater. 
Author: Bryan Magee
Nationality: British
b. 12 April 1930
  
 It could be that the total scenario for human beings is an insoluble mystery until we die, followed by nothing at all. 
Author: Bryan Magee
Nationality: British
b. 12 April 1930
  
 Everything flows, nothing stands still. 
Author: Heraclitus
Nationality: Greek
b. December 535  - d.  December 475
  
 Nothing endures but change. 
Author: Heraclitus
Nationality: Greek
b. December 535  - d.  December 475
  
 Eternity is a child playing, playing checkers; the kingdom belongs to a child. 
Author: Heraclitus
Nationality: Greek
b. December 535  - d.  December 475
  
 A lifetime is a child playing, playing checkers; the kingdom belongs to a child. 
Author: Heraclitus
Nationality: Greek
b. December 535  - d.  December 475
  
 Time is a game played beautifully by children. 
Author: Heraclitus
Nationality: Greek
b. December 535  - d.  December 475
  
 Lifetime is a child at play, moving pieces in a game. Kingship belongs to the child. 
Author: Heraclitus
Nationality: Greek
b. December 535  - d.  December 475
  
 It is harder to fight pleasure than to fight emotion. 
Author: Heraclitus
Nationality: Greek
b. December 535  - d.  December 475
  
 Though wisdom is common, yet the many live as if they had a wisdom of their own. 
Author: Heraclitus
Nationality: Greek
b. December 535  - d.  December 475
  
 Nature is wont to hide herself. 
Author: Heraclitus
Nationality: Greek
b. December 535  - d.  December 475
  
 Much learning does not teach understanding. 
Author: Heraclitus
Nationality: Greek
b. December 535  - d.  December 475
  
 This universe, which is the same for all, has not been made by any god or man, but it always has been, is, and will be an ever-living fire, kindling itself by regular measures and going out by regular measures. 
Author: Heraclitus
Nationality: Greek
b. December 535  - d.  December 475
  
 That which always was, and is, and will be everlasting fire, the same for all, the cosmos, made neither by god nor man, replenishes in measure as it burns away. 
Author: Heraclitus
Nationality: Greek
b. December 535  - d.  December 475
  
 The wise is one only. It is unwilling and willing to be called by the name of Zeus. 
Author: Heraclitus
Nationality: Greek
b. December 535  - d.  December 475
  
 Logos is day and night, winter and summer, war and peace, surfeit and hunger. 
Author: Heraclitus
Nationality: Greek
b. December 535  - d.  December 475
  
 You could not step twice into the same river; for other waters are ever flowing on to you. 
Author: Heraclitus
Nationality: Greek
b. December 535  - d.  December 475
  
 It is wise to listen, not to me but to the Word, and to confess that all things are one. 
Author: Heraclitus
Nationality: Greek
b. December 535  - d.  December 475
  
 It would not be better if things happened to people just as they wish. 
Author: Heraclitus
Nationality: Greek
b. December 535  - d.  December 475
  
 Couples are wholes and not wholes, what agrees disagrees, the concordant is discordant. From all things one and from one all things. 
Author: Heraclitus
Nationality: Greek
b. December 535  - d.  December 475
  
 The road up and the road down is one and the same. 
Author: Heraclitus
Nationality: Greek
b. December 535  - d.  December 475
  
 Man, like a light in the night, is kindled and put out. 
Author: Heraclitus
Nationality: Greek
b. December 535  - d.  December 475
  
 When is death not within ourselves? Living and dead are the same, and so are awake and alseep, young and old. 
Author: Heraclitus
Nationality: Greek
b. December 535  - d.  December 475
  
 Corpses are more fit to be thrown out than is dung. 
Author: Heraclitus
Nationality: Greek
b. December 535  - d.  December 475
  
 Even sleepers are workers and collaborators on what goes on in the universe. 
Author: Heraclitus
Nationality: Greek
b. December 535  - d.  December 475
  
 Opposition brings concord. Out of discord comes the fairest harmony. 
Author: Heraclitus
Nationality: Greek
b. December 535  - d.  December 475
  
 The people should fight for their law as if defending the city's wall. 
Author: Heraclitus
Nationality: Greek
b. December 535  - d.  December 475
  
 It is better to hide ignorance, but it is hard to do this when we relax over wine. 
Author: Heraclitus
Nationality: Greek
b. December 535  - d.  December 475
  
 Character is destiny. 
Author: Heraclitus
Nationality: Greek
b. December 535  - d.  December 475
  
 Uls sont tous sous mes chaussures merde. 
Author: Michael G. Olson
Nationality: Australian
b. 7 December 1956
  
 The philosophical arguments which constitute this book are intended not to increase what we know about minds but to rectify the logical geography of the knowledge we already possess. 
Author: Gilbert Ryle
Nationality: British
b. 19 August 1900  - d. 06 October 1976
  
 Man need not be degraded to a machine by being denied to be a ghost in a machine.  
Author: Gilbert Ryle
Nationality: British
b. 19 August 1900  - d. 06 October 1976
  
 Our passionate preoccupation with the sky, the stars, and a God somewhere in outer space is a homing impulse. We are drawn back to where we came from. 
Author: Eric Hoffer
Nationality: American
b. 25 July 1902  - d. 21 May 1983
  
 It was the craving to be a one and only people which impelled the ancient Hebrews to invent a one and only God whose one and only people they were to be. 
Author: Eric Hoffer
Nationality: American
b. 25 July 1902  - d. 21 May 1983
  
 There is not an idea that cannot be expressed in 200 words. But the writer must know precisely what he wants to say. If you have nothing to say and want badly to say it, then all the words in all the dictionaries will not suffice. 
Author: Eric Hoffer
Nationality: American
b. 25 July 1902  - d. 21 May 1983
  
 It is doubtful if the oppressed ever fight for freedom. They fight for pride and power - power to oppress others. The oppressed want above all to imitate their oppressors; they want to retaliate. 
Author: Eric Hoffer
Nationality: American
b. 25 July 1902  - d. 21 May 1983
  
 If anybody asks me what I have accomplished, I will say all I have accomplished is that I have written a few good sentences. 
Author: Eric Hoffer
Nationality: American
b. 25 July 1902  - d. 21 May 1983
  
 For though ours is a godless age, it is the very opposite of irreligious. The true believer is everywhere on the march, and both by converting and antagonizing he is shaping the world in his own image. And whether we are to line up with him or against him, it is well that we should know all we can concerning his nature and potentialities. 
Author: Eric Hoffer
Nationality: American
b. 25 July 1902  - d. 21 May 1983
  
 When hopes and dreams are loose in the streets, it is well for the timid to lock doors, shutter windows and lie low until the wrath has passed. For there is often a monstrous incongruity between the hopes, however noble and tender, and the action which follows them. It is as if ivied maidens and garlanded youths were to herald the four horsemen of the apocalypse. 
Author: Eric Hoffer
Nationality: American
b. 25 July 1902  - d. 21 May 1983
  
 Faith in a holy cause is to a considerable extent a substitute for the lost faith in ourselves. 
Author: Eric Hoffer
Nationality: American
b. 25 July 1902  - d. 21 May 1983
  
 The less justified a man is in claiming excellence for his own self, the more ready he is to claim all excellence for his nation, his religion, his race or his holy cause. 
Author: Eric Hoffer
Nationality: American
b. 25 July 1902  - d. 21 May 1983
  
 A man is likely to mind his own business when it is worth minding. When it is not, he takes his mind off his own meaningless affairs by minding other people's business. 
Author: Eric Hoffer
Nationality: American
b. 25 July 1902  - d. 21 May 1983
  
 There is no doubt that in exchanging a self-centered for a selfless life we gain enormously in self-esteem. The vanity of the selfless, even those who practice utmost humility, is boundless.  
Author: Eric Hoffer
Nationality: American
b. 25 July 1902  - d. 21 May 1983
  
 There is a fundamental difference between the appeal of a mass movement and the appeal of a practical organization. The practical organization offers opportunities for self-advancement, and its appeal is mainly to self-interest. On the other hand, a mass movement, particularly in its active, revivalist phase, appeals not to those intent on bolstering and advancing a cherished self, but to those who crave to be rid of an unwanted self. A mass movement attracts and holds a following not because it can satisfy the desire for self-advancement, but because it can satisfy the passion for self-renunciation. 
Author: Eric Hoffer
Nationality: American
b. 25 July 1902  - d. 21 May 1983
  
 When our individual interests and prospects do not seem worth living for, we are in desperate need for something apart from us to live for. All forms of dedication, devotion, loyalty and self-surrender are in essence a desperate clinging to something which might give worth and meaning to our futile, spoiled lives. 
Author: Eric Hoffer
Nationality: American
b. 25 July 1902  - d. 21 May 1983
  




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